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买房半价、800万元安家补助 各地为了招人拼了 房价会怎样?

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 8家企业饰面型防火涂料通过3C认证 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

房贷新政将拉动刚需购房意愿 明年楼市或现大变化

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

?备用发电机的失败使得纽约大学医院分部的Langone医学中心被迫撤离。大约200名病人被迫转移。官员们正在调查备用电源失败的原因。
在一份电邮声明中,国际足联表示,在小组赛中,三等票总计售出143364张,相当于每场比赛就卖出了3000张。
The story of the year will be the New York City trial of Khalid Sheik Mohammed.
The total number of qualified applicants reached 31,220 in the first 24 hours, up from 25,000 over the same period last year, according to figures from offcn.com, an education organization that offers training for the civil servant exam.
condensed
The January-to-November period in the United States this year was the warmest first 11 months of any year on record for the contiguous states. And 2012 will likely surpass 1998 as the warmest year on record for the nation, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
“Why did this happen to my daughter?” she said. “There’s been so many deaths because of the guns. I don’t know how many people have to die.”

8Australia
The consequences are more parochial than those of Chinese data distortion. British law requires the ONS to produce the RPI and, given that it refuses to improve the measure, its fiddling affects hundreds of billions of pounds of contracts which continue to be linked to the RPI.
Warm greetings and best wishes for happiness and good luck in the coming year.
bend的过去式和过去分词 adj. 下定决心的,弯曲的
该报告指出,代理商和投资机构的涌入导致世界第二大经济体的增长方式和平台发生了额外的变化。小米科技公司的投资人和创始人雷军、360董事长周鸿祎、中国首富王健林等众多互联网大咖都大力支持流媒体的网络直播,这强烈表明了投资网红经济的巨大利润。

Footnotes

  • 宜华木业股票跌停 刘绍喜陷入传言漩涡
  • Nirvana in Fire

《新财富》预计,2025年左右,中国首富将追平美国首富的个人财富,并有实力问鼎全球首富。
时间:2011-03-08 编辑:beck
[d?'mestik]
The inclusion of three turbodiesel engines this year could be considered controversial, especially as diesels remain far less popular in the U.S. than in Europe, where they tend to dominate the discussion. This is the first year in which more than two diesel-powered mills made the top 10 list and ironically two of them come from domestic automakers, including the only current full-size domestic half-ton pickup to offer one, the Ram 1500.
肥皂剧通常都在电视收视排行榜上位居前列,但2012最流行的电视节目是英国广播电台儿童节目《麦克小骑士》,它打败了美国惊悚电视剧《国土安全》和真人秀节目《Towie》。
与此同时,中国12月消费者物价指数(CPI)略升至1.5%,11月为1.4%,为5年低点。

国家税务总局:确保减税降费政策“落地生根”

References

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